Friday Offcuts – 4 April 2014

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ABARES has just released their five yearly report on trends in Australia’s forests (details and a link to the new report are listed below). Improved methodologies for forest mapping means that this report according to the research bureau provides the most accurate national picture of the country’s forests to date.

The industry got pass marks in a number of key areas. Of growing concern though is the continued drop off in new planting. In 2010-11 only 10,000 ha of new plantations were established compared to around 87,000 ha in 2006-07 and 137,000 ha in 2000-01. This marked reduction in new planting is something that’s mirrored on the other side of the Tasman as well.

In 2011 it was estimated that new plantings in New Zealand totalled 12,000 ha. This is a far cry from the 98,200 ha of new plantings recorded in 1994 but certainly better than a low of less than 2,000 ha recorded just five years ago. In a news story this week a NZ nursery owner said that in the height of tree planting in the 1990’s he grew about nine million young pine trees for companies and individuals. Now he has only 3.8 million seedlings with most of these destined for replacement rather than new planting. For an industry with a 25 year plus planning horizon the Government on both sides of the Tasman you’d think would have a keen interest (for all the economic, environmental and social benefits that are often trotted out) and be playing an active role in facilitating the development of the sector.

At the gathering of political and forestry leaders in Wellington a couple of weeks ago, only one of the political parties outlined how they’d stem falling planting rates. The idea of introducing suspensory loans (repayable only at harvest time) to encourage the new planting of production forests was suggested. In Australia at this time, it appears the only encouragement being offered for new planting is for farmers or land managers to work through the Carbon Farming Initiative. Firm policies on both sides of the Tasman are needed to reverse the downward trend in new planting seen over the last decade. It’s essential for the longer term competitiveness and survival of the forestry industry.

Other major news this week includes the announcement that six bids had been received for Gunns assets, including two companies that were keen on the Tamar Valley pulp mill project, the sale of one of New Zealand’s largest nurseries to Arborgen (the company currently owns five production nurseries, two seed orchards, and a manufacturing facility for producing high value Radiata Varietal seedlings in New Zealand), the raising of another US$60 million by NZ-founded bio-fuels innovator LanzaTech and in New Zealand, news that over the next 15 years Ngai Tahu expects to build the value of its agricultural investments to more than NZ$1.5 billion, helped by its conversion of forestry land into dairy farms. Enjoy this week’s read.

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Graham Lowe to speak at NZ forestry gathering

Graham Lowe, one of Australasia’s rugby league icons, will be a special guest speaker at the NZ leg of Wood Flow Logistics 2014 event this year. The dinner will be run on the first night of the two-day conference being held for forestry, harvesting and wood transport companies in Rotorua on Wednesday 11 June.

In a recent article we highlighted how some GPS monitoring vests used by professional athletes are being remodelled and used by forestry workers. Lowe, a long time sufferer of sleep apnoea was once told he got just eight minutes of real sleep a night. He now blames the condition for his horrendous health history of strokes, heart attacks and brain aneurisms.

The champion coach says that's what motivated him to launch a pilot study using these GPS units to try to cut forestry deaths by sounding an alert when workers are tired. Fatigue has been blamed as a major contributing factor for the industry's poor safety record. With business partner Rachel Lehen, Lowe has formed a company, Lowie Fatigue Management. The GPS monitoring vests measure core temperature, heart rate, respiration, hydration, perspiration, whether workers are standing or sitting and their GPS position. Researchers will be studying data to measure whether workers are dangerously tired.

Staff employed for HarvestPro, one of New Zealand's largest logging sub-contractors, will trial the vests in a new study. The GPS technology has been used by sports teams, the military, fire fighters and to monitor the health of the 29 Chilean mineworkers trapped underground for 69 days in 2010, but this adaptation is new. Graham at the dinner meeting will be outlining the technology – how it has been employed outside the forestry industry and results from the recent in-forest trials.

If wanting to register or save a place at the dinner, best register now on

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Five-year report on state of Australia's forests

A five-yearly report just released provides analysis and updated data on trends in Australia’s 125 million hectares of forest. The Australian Bureau of Agricultural and Resource Economics and Sciences (ABARES) Australia’s State of the Forests 2013 report consolidates the best available data from every state and territory and nationally.

ABARES Executive Director, Karen Schneider, said the report gives an important insight into Australian forests for the five-year period ending in June 2011, with Australia having the seventh-largest forest area of any country worldwide. “Improved methodologies for forest mapping means this report provides the most accurate national picture of our forests to date”.

“There has been no reduction in the areas of rainforest or multiple-use public native forest since the previous report in 2008,” Ms Schneider said. “Between July 2006 and June 2011, the area of commercial plantations increased to 2 million hectares. In 2011 the volume of wood harvested from plantations had increased to 76 per cent of Australia’s total log supply. The total number of people directly employed in all forest sectors fell from 85,000 people in 2006, to 73,000 people in 2011,” Ms Schneider said.

"It is pleasing to see acknowledgement of the significant role forest products can play in sequestration of atmospheric carbon with the report indicating that 226 million tonnes of atmospheric carbon was sequestered and stored in forest products, an increase of 27 million tonnes since 2000. This storage is equivalent to 37 years’ worth of annual domestic aviation emissions in Australia” the Australian Forest Products Association’s CEO, Ross Hampton.

"It was highlighted in the report that plantation forests contribute 76 per cent of Australia’s total log supply. However, AFPA notes with concern that only 10 000 ha of new plantations were established in 2010-11 compared with 87 000 ha in 2006-07 and 137 000 ha in 2000-01. Without further plantation expansion, Australia’s forest processing sector will have limited opportunities to grow, so that they can remain competitive in increasing global wood product markets'.

"Australia remains a net importer of wood and wood products with forest product imports valued at over AU$4.0 billion. Further restrictions to resource supply in Australia and limited expansion of the plantation resources can only lead to a worsening trade deficit which currently stands at AU$1.93 billion".

"AFPA has previously sounded the alarm on diminishing levels of research and development with regard to forest and plantation silviculture and forest product manufacturing, including packaging, cellular level research on wood derived fibre and biodegradable plastic substitutes. The report reaffirms our concerns and highlights the dramatic decline, over the reporting period, in the number of researchers and technicians involved in forest products research".

Australia’s State of the Forests 2013 is available on the ABARES website.

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ArborGen New Zealand acquires Edendale Nursery

ArborGen announced this week that it has entered into an agreement to acquire the Edendale Nursery business in Southland, New Zealand. ArborGen will begin production at the nursery on April 1, 2014, and be responsible for sales in the 2014 season onwards.

ArborGen is the largest supplier of seedlings in New Zealand and sells up to 25 million trees annually, predominately in the North Island. The company currently owns in New Zealand five production nurseries, two seed orchards, and a manufacturing facility for the production of high value Radiata Varietal seedlings.

The Edendale Nursery is a well-established nursery growing seedlings for large corporate forest owners, forest managers, consultants and farm foresters in Southland and Otago regions, with the capacity to produce up to ten million seedlings annually.

“This acquisition now enables ArborGen to supply customers throughout the North and South Islands of New Zealand. Edendale’s customers will now also be able to benefit from the extensive investments ArborGen has made to develop seedlings with superior genetics for planting in New Zealand’s forests.

"We look forward to working with forest owners in Southland and Otago, assisting them to add additional value to their estates, and continuing Edendale’s proud tradition in the region,” said Greg Mann, general manager of ArborGen’s Australasian operations.

The nursery’s land will be leased from the current owners with ArborGen holding a land purchase option. Approval for the transaction has been received from the New Zealand Overseas Investment Office.

Source: Business Wire

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EOI for Wood Innovations 2014

What is Wood Innovations 2014? Wood preservation, wood modification and composite wood products. A lot has changed in wood preservation over the last 10 years. The Forest Industry Engineering Association’s (FIEA) independent wood preservation technology series run in conjunction with leading industry associations such as TPAA has continued to provide a regular insight into new and emerging formulations, innovative new treatment processes, changing standards, international and issues that will impact on local operations along with opportunities for growth.

Alternate wood products to timber treated with wood preservatives are also increasingly making themselves known in the marketplace. Wood Plastic Composites and modified wood products are now a commercial reality and are offering a genuine alternative to more traditional treated wood products.

Rather than being seen as a threat, there are real opportunities for local companies to diversify their current operations from the outset. Early adoption of new technology – formulations, treatment processes and new wood treatment technologies - provides companies with diversification. In most cases it compliments existing operations and provides the company with an early competitive advantage.

Innovations for alternate as well as preservative treated wood products will be the new focus for Wood Innovations 2014. Last held in 2012, Wood Innovations 2014 will be the seventh programme of this very successful series. With over 200 delegates attending the New Zealand and Australian series in 2012, we’re expecting another comprehensive turnout for this expanded event in 2014 event. Further details can be found on the event website, www.woodinnovations

Interested in being involved?

We will shortly be developing the conference programme and will be talking with a wide range of timber treatment and wood manufacturing operations, technology providers, researchers and key industry associations. It’s not too late for you to be involved. If keen on being involved in presenting in Wood Innovations 2014, please contact or fill in your details on the event website by Friday 11 April.

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Proposed CRC bid for Australian wood manufacturing

Forest & Wood Products Australia has taken the lead in developing a bid for a cooperative research centre (CRC) in the sector focussed on optimising the manufacturing sector to better suit the known quantity and quality of existing forest resources.

Support and encouragement has been received from the R&D community for FWPA to advance a CRC bid, although to be successful, the bid will require significant cash and in-kind support from industry. The proposed CRC will focus on initiatives to improve the international competitiveness of existing manufacturing facilities and to assist in the deployment of the new generation of wood fibre technologies. The working title for the bid is the CRC for Transforming Wood Fibre.

While much of the detail is still to be worked through with R&D and industry partners, it is hoped that a successful CRC will deliver on four key goals:

- A robust value chain for the growing and processing of Australian wood fibre resources to maximise international competitiveness and attract new investment

- Better understanding of the materials and customers for key markets, especially in the built environment of 2030 and beyond

- Decision support tools to assist in the optimisation of existing and new products that capture key variables and outputs along the full value chain

- The next generation of technically skilled experts that can help assist the industry make the transformation in its products and markets The bid is being led by Dr Chris Lafferty, FWPA’s R&D Manager, and he can be contacted directly at

Source: ForWood, March 2014

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Future solar cells may be made of wood

A new kind of paper that is made of wood fibres yet is 96% transparent could be a revolutionary material for next-generation solar cells. Coming from plants, the paper is inexpensive and more environmentally friendly than the plastic substrates often used in solar cells. However, its most important advantage is that it overcomes the trade-off between optical transparency and optical haze that burdens most materials.

A team of researchers from the University of Maryland, the South China University of Technology, and the University of Nebraska-Lincoln, have published a paper on the new material in a recent issue of Nano Letters.

As the researchers explain, solar cell performance benefits when materials possess both a high optical transparency (to allow for good light transmission) and a high optical haze (to increase the scattering and therefore the absorption of the transmitted light within the material). But so far, materials with high transparency values (of about 90%) have very low optical haze values (of less than 20%).

The new wood-based paper has an ultrahigh transparency of 96% and ultrahigh optical haze of 60%, which is the highest optical haze value reported among transparent substrates. More >>

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Gunns' assets attract six final bids

Two companies have entered final bids for the Tamar Valley pulp mill project proposed by collapsed Tasmanian timber company Gunns. Gunns' receiver, Korda Mentha, said this week that six bids have come in for Gunns' assets, including two for the mill. Bids have been received from companies in the US, UK, Australia and Asia. As well as the mill, four parties have expressed interest in Gunns' forestry assets, including plantations and freehold land and a woodchip mill. It will take about two weeks to choose a preferred bidder.

Source: ABC News

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The Outernet - Free Worldwide Wi-Fi

Forget what you know about the Internet, especially the part where you have to pay to access it.

A New York City-based company, the Media Development Investment Fund, plans to launch hundreds of low-cost miniature satellites known as “cubesats” into orbit around the Earth to create the Outernet, a wireless connection to the Web available for free to every person in the world. If everything goes according to plan, the Outernet could be here as soon as June 2015.

Each cubesat receives data from a network of ground stations around the world and transmits this information on a loop until new information is received. This means using the Outernet will be more like watching a program broadcast on TV, though Outernet users will build a priority list for the information they want and make suggestions for new content. More >>

For those into mobile communications, a MobileTECH 2014 event is being planned for New Zealand and Australia’s primary industries. This follows on from the outstanding success of the inaugural MobileTECH Summit 2013 held last year in New Zealand. It was SOLD OUT.

Delegates from across the horticultural, dairy, meat, wool, fisheries and forestry industries came together for the first time to meet with leading experts and innovative technology suppliers. Key topics and discussions included the improving communication networks, the use of cloud computing, wireless monitoring, enhanced quality satellite imagery and the integration of smart phones into our businesses – these are all at the forefront of productivity gains within the sector and are crucial in reshaping how we do business.

MobileTECH 2014 is planned to run in Australia on 5-6 August and again in New Zealand on 12-13 August 2014. Further information can be found on

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Why the US is spending to promote wood skyscrapers

The Department of Agriculture doesn’t usually meddle in architecture, but at a recent event at the White House, it announced an unusual project: A $US1 million competition for high-rise buildings built out of wood — and another million that will go to educating architects about it.

You might remember that President Obama signed a new $US956 billion Farm Bill in early February. A big focus of the new bill is “Made in Rural America,” an initiative designed to help rural farmers find and take advantage of economic opportunities. Like, say, helping lumber companies develop and market high-tech wood products to architects who might otherwise spec steel and concrete in taller buildings.

Let’s back up for a second, though: Skyscrapers made from timber?? Is there really a market for wood that can be used in tall buildings? In fact, there is — though it’s very young. So American architects are thinking about timber construction. The problem the White House wants to solve is where they will get it from?

A recent London multi-story tower’s timber was sourced from a company in Austria called KLH, which pioneered the manufacturing of the stuff. But the US government would like that wood to come from the US, not Europe — hence its partnership with WoodWorks, a nonprofit that aims to connect architects with stateside suppliers.

There are plenty of other things standing in the way of timber towers, as The Oregonian explains: Building codes that don’t allow the use of wood in buildings over a certain height, for example, not to mention shifting the longstanding public perception that wood buildings are weaker, more dangerous, and less durable. There’s also been a surge in lobbyists hired by chemical and plastics companies, which are waging a war against LEED and other sustainable building initiatives — which they see as legislation that harms their businesses.

So as President Obama promises to spend billions helping rural America, he’s also looking at the lumber industry — which, from the Federal Government’s perspective, could be growing the next big building material in our own back yard.

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Bio-fuels pioneer LanzaTech raises a further US$60 million

New Zealand-founded bio-fuels innovator LanzaTech has attracted US$60 million in its latest capital-raising round, including a US$20 million commitment from Japanese industrial conglomerate Mitsui, which will join the LanzaTech board.

Headquartered in Chicago, but with scientific operations led from its Auckland laboratories, LanzaTech is seeking up to US$80 million in its so-called “D round” of funding, with a second tranche possible later this year, according to a report on the authoritative BioFuels Digest website, which describes the latest capital-raising as a “monster haul.”

Others participating in the round were German industrial giant Siemens, through its venture capital unit, CICC Growth Capital, and several of the firm’s existing investors: US billionaire clean-tech investor Vinod Khosla’s vehicle Khosla Ventures, Warehouse founder Stephen Tindall’s K1W1 fund, Qiming Venture Partners, and the Malaysian Life Sciences Capital Fund.

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Cardboard Cathedral architect wins equivalent of Nobel Prize for architecture

Shigeru Ban, architect of Christchurch’s Transitional (“Cardboard”) Cathedral, has won the Pritzker Prize. Ban is a world-class architect and expert in disaster-zone building. The new Cathedral is his largest post-disaster structure to date.

“The Pritzker Prize is the equivalent of the Nobel Prize for architecture, being awarded for lifetime contribution to the advancement of the art of architecture globally,” says Dr Andrew Barrie, professor at the University of Auckland’s School of Architecture & Planning and author of the forthcoming Shigeru Ban: Cardboard Cathedral (Auckland University Press).

“The Cardboard Cathedral now has the unique status as New Zealand's only building by a Pritzker-Prize-winning architect, cementing its position as among the most significant buildings in New Zealand’s architectural history.”

Built in Christchurch’s inner city, the Cardboard Cathedral stands in for the historic building devastated by the earthquakes of September 2010 and February 2011. Signalling the beginnings of renewal in the CBD, the Cathedral is the first new civic building completed since the quake and is built to last forever.

More >>

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Death of an Australian harvester operator a mystery

On Monday last week at 3.20pm a highly experienced mechanical harvester operator was crushed (bear hugged) inside a harvesting head and died instantly. Investigators are mystified why a 55 year old highly experienced mechanical harvester operator with 36 years experience with mechanical machinery in the logging industry was inside the harvesting head, knives open and the main engine powered up.

This operator was fully reassessed by an approved training organisation back in September last year for harvester and forwarder. At this stage the investigation is not complete, however human error may have been a contributing factor.

Merv Johns an Independent Safety & Health Consultant - Forest Industry from Nelson, NZ who has been carrying an independent investigation for the logging company in Australia for the last 6 days, rates it right up in the top category of the worst fatal accidents that he has investigated over 35 years and he sends a strong warning to all harvester/processor operators in both NZ and Australia.

Serious warning to all NZ and Australian harvester/processor operators

- Never go alongside or inside a harvesting/processing head with knives open while it is live - power on and motor running

Safety first at all times around machinery

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Japanese and Korean economic and housing update

Japan’s economy

Japan’s economy closed out 2013 on a fragile upwards growth trajectory. Annual GDP advanced 1.6% in 2013. However fourth quarter GDP results fell to a 0.9% annualized rate. Weaker than expected consumer demand as well as declining capital investment are cited as the factors for the slowing growth rate late in 2013. There are concerns that the introduction of the consumption tax increase in April may stall growth starting in Q2 2014.

Progress is evident with the Abe government’s objective of ending Japan’s deflationary spiral. Year over year consumer prices edged up 1.3% in December and wholesale prices were up 2.4% in January. The government described prices as “rising moderately” for the first time since 2008.

Exports surged 15.3% in December and 9.5% in January, however, the increase failed to keep the pace with rising imports. Imports jumped 25% in January: leading to a record monthly trade deficit of $27.2 billion.

Japan’s Housing Starts

Total December housing starts surged 18% to finish at 89,578 units. The December results marked a 16th consecutive monthly gain. Total housing starts for 2013 finished at 979,683 units: an 11% gain over year prior results. Total wooden starts increased 13% to 549,971 units. Post and beam starts increased by just under 49,000 units to finish at 412,892. Wooden pre-fab was up by 11.8% to 16,968. Platform frame starts posted a record high of 120,111 units: besting the previous high in 2008 by 12,400 units. As a percentage of total starts, wood frame construction was up 1.0% to 56.1%.

South Korean economy

South Korea’s exports edged down 0.2% on-year to US$45.58 billion in January, with imports dropping 0.9% to $44.85 billion posting a trade surplus of $735 million. Household income grew 2.1% on-year in 2013 on improved labour market conditions that led to more employment.

In order for South Korean economy to make a leap forward, the south Korean government is preparing the three-year economic innovation plan which aims to raise the country’s growth potential to 4%, hike the overall employment rate to 70% and increase the annual per-capita income level to $40,000.

South Korea’s housing starts

With a prolonged slump in housing and real estate market since 2008, Korea’s housing starts in 2013 decreased 3.4% to 83,744 buildings from a year earlier 86,683 buildings. The number of wood building permits and wood building starts in 2013 decreased 1.0% to 11,710 and 0.3% to 10,339 respectively compared with those in 2012.

On a permanent reduction of acquisition tax and an outlook of improving real estate market conditions, housing transactions in South Korea more than doubled in January from a year earlier indicating a recovery in the local property market.

Source: Canada Wood

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Paper price rises hit Aussie markets

The latest edition (106) of Pulp & Paper Edge details the inevitable increase of paper prices in Australia. The price rises will average between 8.5% and 12% for most major merchants. Prices increases are set to be passed on through the supply chain and ultimately to end users.

The major driver of the price increases is the increased cost of imported paper over 2013 and early 2014. The depreciation of the Australian dollar has been the primary driver of higher imported paper prices.

At the same time, other costs, including shipping and fuel, have also increased, which IndustryEdge has observed in freight rates in the woodchip export industry where exporters charter entire ships. Despite the higher prices paid by importers, many were locked in to sell-side deals that reduced margins and for some, margins were clearly reduced to the point they were making losses.

To date, other than the highly commoditised uncoated wood free (think of general office, copy and writing papers), prices for all other grades of printing and communication papers are around or less than half of the value of the currency depreciation since MQ’13.

The softer price increases are partly a result of buy-side pricing agreements that are just now washing through, with the full currency impact only being picked up in new contract prices. It is this situation which is prompting the current round of announced price rises.

Inevitable though they may be, paper price increases come at a hard time for printers and the downstream elements of the printed communications value chain. Regardless, industry media outlets have reported that many printers intend to pass the price increase on.

Source: Industry Edge

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Ngai Tahu swapping forests for farms

In New Zealand, over the next 15 years Ngai Tahu expects to build the value of its agricultural investment to more than NZ$1.5 billion, helped by its conversion of forestry land into dairy farms. Ngai Tahu Property chief executive Tony Sewell said the NZ$1.5b target would be backed by hundreds of millions of dollars of extra capital investment.

The iwi would invest NZ$600 million in land conversion, stock and dairy company shares. The first tranche of that expenditure, to date and over the next five years, would be NZ$150m, including the transformation of Eyrewell and Balmoral forest land to irrigated pasture.

Sewell said Ngai Tahu Property's early farm investments included 36,000 hectares of high country property at Greenstone, Routeburn and Elfin Bay, near the head of Lake Wakatipu. Eyrewell and Balmoral were recent additions. Forestry Land held for farm development included 7,000ha at Eyrewell 9,000ha at Balmoral and about 10, 000ha on the West Coast. Already about 30 per cent of the Balmoral land had been cleared.

To read the full story click here.

Source: Stuff News

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NZ lumber exports drop

There was a significant drop in lumber exports from NZ in January. January this year was well below January 2013, but in line with the five year average for January. Lumber exports were well ahead of average for all of 2013. Exports to the growth markets of China and South East Asia were actually above January 2013, but it was the higher value markets of the US and Australia that were down year-on-year.

The average unit price for lumber exported to Australia was down 32% year-on-year, which has been driven to some extent by the NZD rising 17% against that currency from January 2013 to January 2014. The NZ dollar has continued to strengthen since January, and this is clearly having a major impact on NZ’s lumber exports. Lumber exports to Australia were valued at NZ$130 million for 2013, making up 19.56% of NZ’s exports by value.

Average unit price for lumber exported to the US were down 15% year-on-year for January, but there is more optimism for this market. The US lumber markets were elevated during the start of 2013 due to a bright run for the US housing construction, but fell sharply due to over production in anticipation of higher demand. Construction there is still recovering but lumber markets are now making more steady incremental increases.


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Pulp benchmarking results now available

In the pulp sector, major changes have been occurring in the past decade in kraft market pulp production and applications. In particular, production is moving to South America and Southeast Asia, while markets are shifting to Asia, with China now the world's largest producer and consumer of paper and board with a rated capacity of more than 110 million tonnes in 2011 and an annual growth rate of 5.5% for next 10 years. Northern bleached softwood kraft is increasingly used in specialty tissue and towel products, which are gradually replacing the more traditional printing and writing grades.

With all this transformation and a major market shift towards Asia and other emerging markets, significant advantages can be gained through benchmarking. Embracing this process should be an essential part of any business, especially because benchmarking is an embedded management practice used extensively in the management process among many of the world's best firms.

To assist Canadian pulp manufacturers in competing more effectively in global markets, FPInnovations conducts benchmarking programs every five years to assess the quality of bleached kraft market pulps from major pulp-producing countries worldwide.

Results of the 2013 benchmarking report has already been sent to participating companies and a report on the results of two previous benchmarking programs has now been released to the public. A total of 84 pulps – 50 softwood and 34 hardwood – from Eastern and Western Canada, Southeast USA, Scandinavia, Southern Europe, Russia, South America, Australasia, and South Africa were included in these programs.

The two-part report provides access to a wide databank of information, from an independent ISO-accredited laboratory, not available otherwise. The report is available in PDF and XLS format and includes the data for all pulps and illustrates the relationships between several property pairs. For more information, contact Wayne Bichard at or 001 514-782-4640.
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Buy and Sell

...and one to end the week on ...maps to help you understand the world

Better informed? Well on that note, have a great weekend and we look forward to meeting many of you at the NZ leg of the Forest Investment & Market Outlook 2014 series starting next week in Auckland. Cheers.

Brent Apthorp
Editor, Friday Offcuts
PO Box 904
Level Two, 2 Dowling Street
Dunedin, New Zealand
Ph: +64 3 470 1902
Fax: +64 3 470 1904
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This week's extended issue, along with back issues, can be viewed at

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