Friday Offcuts 4 March 2022
This week New Zealand’s 6th annual WoodWorks 2022 mass timber conference was organised and delivered by our Innovatek team It was very well received by senior managers and other leaders across the mass timber design and construction sector. It successfully brought together a large number of architects, project managers, designers, quantity surveyors, BIM specialists, engineers and wood producers from throughout the country. The conference focus was on case studies, technology developments, including LVL and CLT, and the prefabrication and connection systems transforming commercial and multi-residential construction.
At our WoodWorks 2022 conference, a new Timber Design Centre was announced by Te Uru Rākau – New Zealand Forest Service deputy director general Jason Wilson. In addition to providing information on engineered timber design guidance, it’s expected that the centre will foster connections across the forestry and construction sectors to build up local design and construction expertise, knowledge, techniques, and skills. Plans also include a new industry advisory service to provide advice to building designers and help promote, facilitate and speed up the greater use of timber for mid-rise buildings. Our WoodWorks NZ team looks forward to working closely with the new centre. Full details can be found in this week’s lead story.
And in keeping with this seismic shift to timber, we’ve included two stories this week profiling the versatility of timber in some local construction projects. The first is a case study on the Timbertop hub, a commercial and retail space that’s going to be servicing a new estate in Melbourne. CLT and GLT supplied from a local producer are at the forefront of this new construction. And in Tasmania, Tasmanian timber is being used extensively for an AU$66 million refurbishment of the State’s largest capacity indoor multi-purpose venue. We’ve included with the story a short video where the project’s architects discuss how they’ve used local timber to create this transformation.
Finally, for upcoming technology events for the forestry industry, a new event Environmental Forestry 2022 has been planned for 10- 11 May 2022 in Rotorua, New Zealand. The new conference and exhibitions have been designed together with industry to highlight best environmental operating practices being developed and used by forestry companies across the country. It’s been designed for foresters, forest managers and people with ‘boots-on the-ground’ from both the forest management and contracting workforce. Registrations are open now with the full programme and details being found on the event website.
This week we have for you:
New rules proposed for carbon farmingA new proposal to better manage carbon farming in New Zealand could see future permanent plantings of exotic forests like radiata pine excluded from the Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS). Forestry Minister Stuart Nash and Climate Change Minister James Shaw have released a public discussion document that seeks feedback on ideas to better manage afforestation.
“Climate change is a challenge we cannot postpone. The government wants to encourage afforestation to help meet our climate change targets, offset carbon emissions, and also help farmers, landowners and investors diversify their income streams,” said Stuart Nash.
“We want to balance the risks created by new permanent exotic forests which are not intended for harvest. We have a window to build safeguards into the system, prior to a new ETS framework coming into force on 1 January 2023.
“From 2023, under current rules, a new permanent forest category of the ETS would allow both exotic and indigenous forests to be registered in the ETS and earn New Zealand Units (NZU). We are now proposing to exclude exotic species from the permanent forest category.
“We want to encourage the right tree, in the right place, for the right reason. We intend to balance the need for afforestation with wider needs of local communities, regional economies, and the environment.
“Increased plantings of exotic forests are being driven by rising carbon prices as landowners and investors seek higher returns. The NZU price has more than doubled over the past year, from around $35 in late 2020 to over $80 in February 2022.
“Permanent exotic forests like radiata pine have potential environmental and ecological risks. These include pests, fire, damaged habitats for native species, biodiversity threats, and a relatively short lifespan compared to well-managed mixed indigenous forests.
“Later this year, we will also consult on proposals which could give local councils more powers to decide under the Resource Management Act where exotic forests are planted in their areas,” said Stuart Nash.
Climate Change Minister James Shaw said planting more trees can help us meet our climate goals, but it is important to make sure all types of afforestation are well-managed through the ETS and the planning process.
Find out more and have your say at: www.mpi.govt.nz.
Public submissions can be made from 14 March. The consultation runs till 22 April 2022.
NZ Timber Design Centre launchedAn agreement to create an industry advisory service for New Zealand’s building designers will promote and facilitate greater use of timber in New Zealand buildings, says Te Uru Rākau – New Zealand Forest Service deputy director general Jason Wilson.
“This advisory service, called the Timber Design Centre, is a milestone for increasing the use of timber in the design and construction of building projects, particularly in non-residential structures such as offices, hotels and multi-storey apartments.”
The Centre is an initiative between Te Uru Rākau – New Zealand Forest Service and a consortium comprising Scion (Crown Research Institute), the Wood Processors and Manufacturers Association, New Zealand Timber Design Society and BRANZ.
“Through this collaboration, the Centre will provide information on timber design guidance, research and development, and specialist technical advice to increase and speed up the use of timber in buildings. A great example of what is possible to be achieved through designing in wood is the world-leading Scion headquarters in Rotorua,” Jason Wilson says.
He says the initiative builds on international experience and learnings and will drive the shift to using timber to its full technical potential in New Zealand, particularly in mid-to-high rise buildings.
“The Centre will also provide an independent forum for fostering connections across the forestry and construction sectors and can develop local expertise, knowledge, techniques, and skills on all aspects of using engineered timber in our buildings.
“By overcoming barriers to using timber in design and construction, New Zealand has the opportunity to replace steel and concrete with wood, lower carbon emissions, and support our country’s drive to greater environmental sustainability.
“The Centre is also a pathway to increase long-term demand for New Zealand wood products and support greater investment in domestic wood processing.”
Te Uru Rākau – New Zealand Forest Service is funding the Centre as part of the Government’s Fit for a Better World roadmap. The Centre is one of several key initiatives underway this year to help transform the forest and wood processing sector.
“By providing an innovative and inspiring source of the latest expert advice and information, the Timber Design Centre will inspire building owners and property developers to commission wooden buildings,” says Jason Wilson.
“This is an exciting step to supporting design professionals to specify timber in building designs and enabling builders and contractors to build high quality wooden buildings which not only support our economic potential but will also deliver strong environmental outcomes for the future.”
The Timber Design Centre is currently virtual, so head to timberdesigncentre.co.nz to find out more and get involved.
Photo: Te Uru Rākau New Zealand Forest Service programme delivery forest science lead Emily Telfer showcases the new timberdesigncentre.co.nz website
Election plan launched to grow Australian timber suppliesAustralia’s renewable forest industries have announced an election policy platform to drive the sector into the future. Our country urgently requires more timber and wood fibre products.
It is essential all sides of federal politics outline their plans to support our industries help meet this demand ahead of the upcoming federal election, Chief Executive Officer of the Australian Forest Products Association (AFPA), Ross Hampton said.
“We are seeking a commitment from all sides of federal politics to support our four-pronged policy platform to deliver more timber to our tradies, secure the industry and drive innovation, growth and jobs. The four themes under which more detailed policy requests are included, are:
• Rapidly delivering on the bipartisan agreement of an additional one billion new production trees to meet Australia’s future timber needs
• Ensure hardwood supplies for floors and other high value uses continue through no more forest lock ups
• Turbocharge the job creating, value adding new fibre-based industries by establishing the National Institute for Forest Products Innovation (NIFPI) in Launceston
• Enhance our world leading pulp, paper and packaging sector to allow it to play a larger role in moving Australia to a recyclable bioeconomy replacing plastics
The empty timber shelves reveal that Australia has been too reliant on imported timber to cover a national failure to keep up with local growing timber demand. The world demand for timber and fibre will quadruple by 2050. Relying so much on overseas imports is no longer a viable option. This election we must see real action to ensure that we deliver more timber to tradies today and plant the trees to deliver to our children for their homes tomorrow.
“AFPA is also launching a major campaign ahead of the federal election reminding Australians to ‘Vote to support forest industries’ when considering how to cast their ballot.”
Monitoring planting using AI and remote sensingScion data scientists working with remote sensing experts Indufor have developed a new commercial service to monitor forest establishment and indigenous forest fragments.
New Zealand will need to plant forests at unprecedented rates for decades to come if the country wishes to achieve its carbon neutrality goals and develop a renewable and sustainable bioeconomy. Successful establishment of newly planted trees is a critical factor in this. The most practical way to monitor establishment is using remote sensing techniques, but the current practice based on unmanned aerial vehicles is expensive and limited in scale.
Scion and Indufor are developing a quicker and more economic method that can be used over large areas.
Scion’s part in the work has been using deep learning to automate data monitoring with a high level of accuracy A neural network model is trained (via deep learning) to progressively extract higher-level features from the raw input. Rather like doing a jigsaw puzzle with a person in the picture, pixels that make up edge pieces are identified in an initial layer then the edge pieces are joined up in a subsequent layer, followed by a layer that learns large features, like a nose or an eye, and an additional layer will use these features to recognise the image contains a face, and so on.
The deep learning process automatically learns which image features are useful for the task at hand. This learning requires a high-quality training and validation dataset, often involving careful human image labelling. The training process is complete when the automatically learned model parameters are optimised in a way that the model gives the best possible performance on the unseen validation dataset.
Training sets are used by Scion to train the deep learning model for a specific problem. The model development started from locating and drawing a bounding box around areas that had been spot-sprayed after planting. However, this only works well with relatively homogeneously sized and shaped features – trees and forests tend to be irregular.
The model was extended to combine object (sprayed spot) detection with a component that classifies each pixel in a bounding box. This enables sprayed spots and irregular forest fragments to be identified, mapped and delineated with polygons; data that can be used to evaluate seedling survival rate, while also gaining a clear picture of any indigenous forest pockets on site.
C3 delivers industry-first grapple log loading innovationC3 Limited, part of the broader LINX Cargo Care Group, has officially unveiled the new C3 Log Vessel Grapple (LVG) at the Port of Tauranga, a first in Australasia.
Held exclusively by C3 Limited, and developed in collaboration with industry partner, Page Macrae Engineering and customers, the revolutionary log loading technology is set to deliver unparalleled levels of safety and provide greater flexibility with no requirement for specialised infrastructure.
The new grapple loading system – which is wholly designed and built in New Zealand – is a shift away from the industry-norm of a plunger style Cranston and log wires which can present safety and efficiency challenges. Instead, the C3 LVG, which is easily transportable and can be operated in any port, removes the need for wharf hands to sling loads reducing significant risks.
Gavin Hudson, C3 New Zealand and Pedersen Group COO, said after a series of extensive trials the C3 LVG had already proven its worth, so much so that C3 has commissioned a further 22 units to be delivered in 2022.
“The initial results across the board were very impressive. The decreased level of exposure to risks for our people was immediately clear and there was a significant improvement on the traditional loading methods,” said Hudson.
“Our first four C3 Log Vessel Grapples have gone live at Port of Tauranga and a further four will be commissioned in Wellington in March. Others will then follow as the year progresses,” he added.
The development and delivery of the C3 LVG has also been of benefit to New Zealand’s domestic engineering and manufacturing sector with Page Macrae Engineering proving to be an excellent partner on the highly technical and bespoke project.
“The entire PME team is proud to be involved in this project with C3. Although we have innovated a number of products for customers in the past, the C3 LVG’s are a real step forward for PME given the level of automation and ‘smarts’. We look forward to building on our already strong relationship with C3 through assisting them to effectively meet their customer’s needs,” said Dave Body, Page Macrae Engineering CEO.
While safety and overall efficiency gains were significant drivers in the development of the C3 LVG, the flexibility, cost effectiveness and compatibility the technology can provide make it a complete and compelling offering compared to other industry alternatives.
“The arrival of the C3 LVG is exciting for our team, our customers and the industry. It’s a terrific piece of needs-based innovation that makes a real difference in the overall operation. The design of the C3 LVG means it’s easily deployed and can be operated from a standard crane. It’s self-powered and remote operated and is designed to work with current standard trailers and log bunks, minimising additional infrastructure costs,” said Hudson.
Source: C3 Ltd
Reducing emissions and costs with integrated transportBiofuels can reduce transport emissions and may reduce costs in the heavy vehicle industry reports Foresion in their latest study into Supply Chains for Future Road Transport Fuels in Australia. In some Australian states, electric vehicles still produce only slightly less carbon emissions than a regular gasoline powered vehicle because of coal-fired electricity grids. Increasing the biofuel content in regular fuels is one way of immediately reducing carbon emissions as electricity grids transition away from fossil-fuel based generation.
Electrification also isn’t yet a viable option for heavy vehicles due to long charging times, range limitations and battery weights. Biofuels, therefore, provide an opportunity to immediately reduce transport emissions without needing to radically redesign energy distribution or to replace existing fleets.
The forestry industry is uniquely positioned to supply large amounts of biomass from forest residues that would otherwise be underutilised thus increasing the potential value of for resource while offsetting the costs associated with biomass removal/biomass management.
As part of an integrated approach to transportation the forest industry could be encouraged to diversify their revenue sources, reduce their emissions, and build circular economy credentials by better management of waste while contributing to supply chain decarbonisation.
Only two Australian states currently have biofuels mandates, New South Wales and Queensland. New South Wales mandates 2% biodiesel and 6% ethanol content while Queensland mandates just 0.5% biodiesel and 4% ethanol content. “There is a real opportunity to decrease emissions and jump-start an entire biofuels industry just by reaching these figures in other Australian states.”
Read the full report here
Russia’s invasion’s impact on forest products tradeRussia’s invasion of Ukraine is likely to impact global trade in the coming months. Increased sanctions against trading with Russia and difficulty with financial transactions will probably interrupt and re-direct shipments of forest products throughout the world. As a result, trade with Russia will likely decline, impacting long-established international trade flows of forest products.
Countries like China and India, who have reluctantly supported Russia in the conflict, may also be affected by limited trade sanctions. This development would mainly affect China, which relies on the importation of forest products, including logs, wood chips, lumber, pulp, and paper from North America, Europe, Oceania, and Latin America for domestic use. These world regions are considering expanded sanctions for Russia and countries that directly or indirectly support Russia’s attack on Ukraine.
Governments in North America and Europe are also seriously considering locking Russia out of the international SWIFT money transaction system. If this occurs, Russian companies will find it challenging to trade with the world.
Russia exported forest products were valued at over 12 billion dollars in 2021, and imports of paper products (mainly) are valued at about 2 billion dollars, according to Wood Resource Quarterly. Much of this trade is in jeopardy.
Russia is the largest lumber exporter globally and ranks as the seventh biggest exporter of forest products worldwide. Forest products exports from Russia have increased rapidly in the past five years, led by softwood lumber and paper products (see table).
Note. An estimated 40% of exports were destined for China, while the remainder was predominantly shipped to European markets.
Russia has vastly under-utilized forest resources and has the potential to increase timber harvests to supply its domestic industry. To meet increased global demand for forest products, the Russian government recently initiated programs to encourage investments in the sector to both expand/modernize existing manufacturing plants and build greenfield facilities.
However, it is likely that many investments projects in the forest products manufacturing sector in Russia will grind to a halt as the growing list of sanctions and financial transaction restrictions take effect.
Further coverage on Russian exporters and struggles being experienced in supplying lumber into Europe can be read here.
Source: Wood Resources International www.WoodPrices.com. Lesprom.com
Sumitomo Forestry setting up new forests fundA major Japanese homebuilder says it's going to establish a new fund aimed at acquiring forests around the world amid the country's effort to become carbon-neutral by 2050. Sumitomo Forestry says the fund will invest in preserving forests overseas as well as harvesting and replanting them in Japan. It is expected to be worth about 100 billion yen, or 867 million dollars. The company says the fund will eventually own a total of 5 thousand square kilometres of forests in Japan and abroad including Southeast Asia and North America.
Mitsuyoshi Toshiro, President of Sumitomo Forestry said "By protecting and expanding forests and peatlands around the world, we want to contribute to companies whose goals are carbon-neutrality." Sumitomo Forestry already owns parts of forests that absorb more than the amount of carbon dioxide emitted by the company. It plans to turn CO2 reduction from tree planting into credits. It will then issue and distribute them to businesses based on their investment in the fund.
Timber shortly on its way to TongaAs covered in our 28 January issue, a collective of Hawke's Bay building supply companies were working together to help Tongans whose homes had been destroyed to build temporary shelters. Following the volcanic eruption and tsunami in Tonga, the companies were putting together a shipping container of building supplies to send to the island of Atatā.
After weeks of waiting for supplies to arrive at the BBI wood products' yard RSE workers and local businesses gathered at the Hastings depot to split supplies into individual temporary shelter packs on Sunday. Pastor Unaloto Lolohea brought the RSE workers' situation to his boss, identifying that they would require special help. All 11 of the RSE workers came from Atatā, where homes were wiped out by the eruption's ensuing tsunami.
Although BBI and Ecko Fastening Systems director Brendan O'Sullivan managed to pull all the supplies together, he said it wouldn't have happened without Lolohea. "We wanted to do something to help the RSE workers specifically as they have strong links to Hawke's Bay horticulture from working in our region," O'Sullivan said.
Each shelter pack contains framing timber, nails, plywood, fasteners and tin for the roofing. O'Sullivan said without help from business such as Tumu, Kiwi Lumber, Pan Pac, Red stag, WPI, CHH Plywood, Nelson Pine, Ecko Fastening systems, Bremic, Roofing industries, Metalcraft Hastings and RLB packaging, the initiative would not have been possible.
Lolohea said: "For the RSE workers, it would take three years to save enough for this type of shelter. "This showed that dreams come true because in what would have been three years the families will now have shelter in a matter of months. They do appreciate what BBI has done for them and it is going to help the whole island."
The last step left is getting a shipping container and getting it to the Tongan Islands of Atatā. O'Sullivan has been trying to work around the challenging logistics by arranging a container and then getting it to Tonga and the families. It's likely the containers won't leave for Tonga until late this month or early April.
Photo: Left Brendan O'Sullivan, Francie O'Sullivan and Pastor Unaloto Lolohea with RSE workers making shelter packs for their families in Tonga after the volcanic eruption and tsunami. Photo / Paul Taylor
Source: NZ Herald
Astonishing speed and meticulous fabrication with mass timberWhen Developer Parklea engaged i2C Architects to design their new corporate headquarters in Melbourne’s southeast, they specified that they wanted it to be as sustainable and close to carbon-neutral as possible. i2C Architects looked to cross-laminated (CLT) and glue-laminated timber (GLT), supplied by Cusp Building Solutions, to achieve the objectives. In addition to the environmental benefits, choosing CLT and GLT also saved time and money.
Timbertop Estate is home to 700 residences. The Timbertop hub is an innovative commercial and retail space that will service the estate. On the top floor, it will house Parklea’s own corporate headquarters. It is here that Parklea requested the use of CLT and GLT due to its sense of warmth and environmentally friendly qualities.
Designing with CLT and GLT was new to i2C so they reached out to Dayne Davis from Timber Design Studio, and his team of timber engineering experts, to work in collaboration.
“i2C reached out to us [Timber Design Studio] at the commencement of the project on day one, hour one, which is the perfect way to approach designing with mass timber because it allows us to optimise the structure,” says Davis.
Davis explained that the rules of timber physics are a bit different to working with steel and concrete. The architects hadn’t designed with mass timber before, so working collaboratively allowed us to make sure we were delivering exactly what the client wanted in terms of price and vision. We could optimise both the architecture, the fabrication and the cost.
The costs savings from using timber are significant. The structure is fully exposed internally, which saves budget on paint, gyprock and other internal fit-out costs and importantly cost is saved due to the speed of construction on site.
Source & Photo: Cusp Building Solutions
AU$66 million transformation using Tasmanian timberHow Tasmanian timber was used to transform 'the DEC' into a world-class sport and entertainment arena
Tasmania's Derwent Entertainment Centre, constructed in 1989, is Tasmania's largest capacity indoor multi-purpose venue accommodating up to 8,800 people. An agreement between the NBL and the Tasmanian Government has recently seen 'the DEC' refurbished into a world-class arena that is now home to Tasmania's first NBL team in 25 years.
The AU$66 million refurbishment has transformed 'the DEC' into a world-class sports and entertainment facility, with the venue rebranded as MyState Bank Arena. We spoke to Thomas Floyd from Philp Lighton Architects bout how they used Tasmanian timber to create the transformation.
The project brief was to redevelop the Derwent Entertainment Centre into a fit for purpose, distinctively Tasmanian, state-of-the-art basketball stadium, while also keeping the venue true to its origins as a multipurpose event space for Southern Tasmania. Philip Lighton Architects started from the fan's perspective.
Source: Tasmanian Timber
"We wanted to make the fan's experience the best it could be on-site, trying to make a warm and welcoming venue," explains Floyd, "which instantly introduced timber into the design palette."
Read the full story here
Government funding for Victorian forestry researchVictoria’s forestry industries are set to benefit from five new research projects funded by the National Institute for Forest Products Innovation (NIFPI) centre in Gippsland.
Federal Assistant Minister for Forestry and Fisheries Jonno Duniam, and Victorian Minister for Agriculture Mary Anne Thomas congratulated the funding recipients and welcomed the benefits these projects will bring to Gippsland and the wider industry across Australia. The new projects have been backed by funding from the Federal and Victorian governments.
“The Gippsland NIFPI centre has funded five new forestry research projects leveraging a total of AU$4.5 million that will increase the productivity and sustainability of the forestry sector in Gippsland,” Assistant Minister Duniam said.
“Gippsland is a proud forestry region and the AU$2 million of Australian Government funding to the NIFPI, matched by Victoria, is helping to ensure that continues well into the future.”
“The research funded under this round will look at opportunities like remote controlled pruning for improved fire management, productivity enhancing tree breeding, nursery management and soil research, and the commercial opportunities available for smaller diameter plantation logs in Gippsland.”
The Australian and Victorian government project funding includes:
• AU$360,000 for Western Sydney University to develop innovative nursery management solutions to sustainably manage root disease, improve nursery utilisation, and enhance resilience and productivity of planted pines.
• AU$362,000 for Treebreeding Australia to look at how single-step genomic sequencing can deliver sustained productivity gains in softwood plantations.
• AU$90,000 for Federation University to increase productivity for Radiata pine plantations by better understanding soil resources.
• AU$300,000 for Sylva Systems to conduct a feasibility study of a commercially available remote-controlled and high-rate tree pruning unit to create fuel modified zones in softwood plantations.
• AU$300,000 for Radial Timbers Australia to evaluate commercial opportunities for laminated veneer lumber from underutilised small diameter resource in Gippsland.
For more information go to https://nifpi.org.au/
IPCC report doesn’t back native tree exclusivelyThe Forest Owners Association says highly qualified reservations in the latest International Panel on Climate Change report, do not back anthropologist Anne Salmond’s claims that New Zealand should switch exclusively to native trees for its carbon sequestration offsets.
FOA President Phil Taylor agrees that the IPCC report has generalised reservations about countries having an overreliance on forest carbon sequestration, in part because of uncertainty in measuring sequestration rates. He says Forest Owners share this view.
“But Dame Anne wants a solution which makes this problem worse. Sequestration in our native trees is extraordinarily slow, hugely expensive, highly variable, uncertain, unknown and would take vast areas of farmland. Wholesale abandonment of New Zealand using pines as a medium-term bridge to getting to a carbon zero economy by 2050 is highly dangerous.”
“Of course, New Zealand needs to quickly and drastically drive down all greenhouse gas emissions. But the huge technical scope and cost of this reduction absolutely needs offset backup through fast-growing exotic forests at the same time.”
“Dame Anne is also quite wrong in her claims of a ‘pine monoculture’. Production pine plantations will support much more indigenous biodiversity than a ryegrass and clover pasture. There is good science to support transition to native trees in pine forests over time.”
But Phil Taylor emphasises that the critical factor in combating climate change is the constantly reducing time available to arrest irreversible climate warming. “That is way and above the key message in the IPCC report. We are running out of time. Even sequestration from pines, and other fast-growing exotics, takes the best part of 20 years before the volumes of carbon locked up become appreciable.”
“Indigenous forests, for all their natural biodiversity, cultural values and long-term potential as high-quality timber producers, are not going to lock significant carbon in any of our lifetimes – no matter how much we would wish that to happen," Phil Taylor says.
“A particularly poignant and relevant comment was made by Dr Helen Adams, a New Zealander and a lead author of the report, when she stated ‘the future depends on us, not the climate’.”
“New Zealand is well placed with options to meet the challenges of climate change. I’m sure we can find the solutions. We need to act quickly, act on sound technology and science and base our measures on local circumstances. When the government issues its Emissions Reduction Plan in May, we’ll have a clear target to aim for. At the moment, we only have a budget recommendation of an additional 380,000 hectares of exotics to be planted by 2035. That’s only 13 years away – nothing in forestry terms.”
“I had the opportunity to participate in a webinar on the recent Yule Report on forestry this morning. The whole diverse range of other land user representative groups, including Māori stakeholders, discussed the effects of forestry on rural communities.”
“While a few still strongly dispute the benefits of forestry, it was clear that all the main land users appreciate the risk of climate change. That is the real challenge ahead of us," Phil Taylor concluded.
The original article titled Anne Salmond: IPCC report condemns forestry use planned by NZ referred to in this release can be read here.
Source: Forest Owners Association, Newsroom
Buy and Sell
... and one to end the week on ... getting older
While on a road trip, an elderly couple stopped at a roadside restaurant for lunch. After finishing their meal, they left the restaurant, and resumed the trip. She left her glasses on the table, and she didn't miss them until they had been driving for about forty minutes.
And on that note, enjoy your weekend. Cheers.
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