Friday Offcuts 18 March 2022
In New Zealand, a similar programme that’s also really proving it’s worth is Safetree’s leadership training. Safetree’s Frontline Leadership and Team Up workshops, have already been delivered to over 600 forestry people since 2019. Both leadership skills programmes work to address the fact that leadership is actually a learnt skill. People with good technical skills don’t necessarily make good people leaders when they’re promoted up the chain.
Also in New Zealand, as part of a push by the Forest and Wood Processing Workforce Taskforce to improve the status and mana of the silvicultural sector, ten silviculture crews have just completed a trial of a new mentoring programme. It’s designed as a package and can run up to 36 months. The first three months have recently been trialed and the feedback from the participating crews has been positive. The aim now is to ramp it up by engaging with more crews this year with funding from the education sector.
To round off – or add to the robust debate that’s been bubbling (boiling?) away in New Zealand around the suitability of new pine plantings, the suggested tweaking of the country’s ETS and suggestions of even larger scale plantings of indigenous forests on farmland, we’ve added in an opinion piece from Erica Kinder, CEO of the SNI Wood Council on the issue. And just as contentious have been articles appearing in major daily's in Australia this week that claim that the net cost to NSW tax payers has been AU$6 million for “destroying” more than 13,500 hectares of red gum, ironbark and cypress trees - largely for woodchip exports and firewood. A link to the original article and response from the South East Timber Association has been built into the story below.
And finally, 70 years ago they obviously had something special going on. Last week we included a video from 70 years ago that looked at life in the early Australian bush and sawmilling camps. This week we take a look at NZ’s early life in the bush. It’s from about the same time, 70 years ago in the early 1950’s. And John O’Donnell who has been collating extensive reports (and links to each that we’ve built into previous issues of Friday Offcuts) on key lessons learnt from some of the early bushfires in Australia, has pulled together a montage of early images from the 1951-52 bushfires, again, 70 years ago. Enjoy.
This week we have for you:
New silviculture mentoring programme trialledTen silviculture crews around New Zealand have completed a trial of a new mentoring programme developed by the Forest and Wood Processing Workforce Taskforce, with funding from the Forest Growers Levy Trust and support from MPI.
Mentoring programme manager Greg Steele says the Taskforce is looking to improve the status and mana of the silviculture sector. “We want to formalise mentoring in the forestry training infrastructure, especially as some good crews already do take on this role. Using the process, we aim to get new people more skilled earlier in soft and practical skills. We selected crews who were interested and had a new entrant to put through.”
Currently new entrants are encouraged early on in their work to achieve unit standards to meet compliance standards. “We thought if we identified other key interpersonal, communications and induction skills and packaged them on a time-serve basis, for example within the first month, that could work.
A person following the full programme will achieve seven to eight full introductory unit standards as well as achieving time-served milestones. They will be recognised at each milestone, beginning with a one-month certificate. Some of the guys have nothing in the past from school.”
As well as the presentation of a certificate in front of their peers, their elements achieved are downloaded via App onto a smart-card which shows these credentials as a part of their record of learning. A QR code allows scanning and immediate access to credentials held.
The mentoring programme is designed as a package that can run up to 36 months. The first three months have been trialled by the 10 crews. The trial results were assessed in late December and a report prepared for the Taskforce Council.
Greg Steele says he was happy with the trial outcomes. “The intent is now to ramp the programme up, engage more crews in 2022, and establish the training with funding from the education sector. “Mentoring depends on someone being prepared to address it and become a role model, rather than leave a new entrant to their own devices. In many cases, they turn people around and provide a real service to the crew and the community.”
Troy Mason, managing director of KTM Silverculture Ltd based in the Wairarapa, says the mentoring programme allowed their mentee to complete and pass three assessments in a day on the job – in communications, health and safety, and nutrition. “He is well on his way to getting his national certificate; that will be a huge reward for us. He is probably one of the strongest young fellows I’ve ever seen – a qualified builder and a shearer. He has a good work ethic and is willing to learn. He works in a great team environment and is outdoors all day.”
Troy Mason has worked in the industry for 30 years. His company employs 18 staff. His company does all aspects of silviculture and over the years he has employed many young people. “Many are referred to us by the police to give them a go and try to turn their life around. Some are at-risk or troubled youths. Some are too far gone to turn around. A lot of them don’t have a good work ethic. They don’t have a lot of confidence – we try to build that.
“That’s why there are accidents in forestry – they have issues, they have financial burdens at home. It’s being able to read them, take five minutes, being able to talk to them – whether it’s me or a crew member – and build a whanau-way around them; getting to know one another and if they are mentally ok”.
“As a company, we try to take the financial burden off our employees. We pay our cutters and production leads more than others pay them and because of what we do for them, their output is higher. As a result we deliver very good quality work to customers, which I can then reward in turn.”
Ben White, director of Ace of Spades Contracting Ltd based in the Bay of Plenty, is also a supporter of the mentoring programme. His company has two staff going through it. “It’s a better way of learning, especially if you have experienced mentors in the crew. Our workers don’t like to be cooped up in a classroom where things go over their heads but out here in the forest, they can relate to it. It provides a point of difference.”
He says their mentees are receptive to the information which includes safety and a knowledge of the bush. His company employs 16 people to do a variety of silviculture work and was set up two years ago by five directors who are good mates. The company evolved from that friendship,” says Ben White.
“I love my job; being outside seeing the sunrise and sunset. It’s the crew mentoring of new you’re with that makes it; the culture is so great, and our people have bought into it. Silviculture is never going to wind up. Trees will always need to be planted and they will always need to be cut down.”
Contact: for further information on the mentoring programme, contact Greg Steele, Tel: 027 431 7211.
Photo: The Ace of Spades Silviculture crew where two new employees were engaged with Mentors Ben White and Cain McKenzie on the mentor programme
Source: Te Uru Rākau – New Zealand Forest Service
Three selected for Women in Leadership scholarshipsCLTP finance manager Amanda Sharman is one of three recipients of a Tasmanian Forests and Forest Products Network scholarship
Helping eliminate the barriers women face when applying for jobs in the forestry industry and improving job retention is the goal for Coaster Amanda Sharman.
Ms Sharman has received a scholarship from the Tasmanian Forests and Forest Products Network to further establish her leadership skills in her role as finance manager at CLTP Tasmania. "I think it is a good opportunity to connect with other women in the industry," she said.
After it was inundated with high-quality applications for its two Women in Leadership Scholarships recently, the Tasmanian Forests and Forest Products Network extended its offering, awarding scholarships to THREE women working in the Tasmanian forest industry, to further establish their leadership skills.
Scholarship recipients, Bonnie Galbraith (Timberlands Pacific), Amanda Sharman (CLTP Tasmania) and Carmen Windsor (Sustainable Timber Tasmania) will complete the AICD Foundations of Directorship Online Course this year; a structured 11-week program that combines virtual classroom sessions, online learning activities and individual study with support from a team of experienced faculty members. Topics covered by the program include Governance for Directors, Finance for Directors and Strategy and Risk for Directors.
Network Convenor Therese Taylor said they were actively working to increase the number of women working in forestry. "I am passionate about advocating careers for women in industries that have traditionally been male dominated," she said.
Read more about the three scholarship recipients here
Source: Tasmanian Forests and Forest Products Network, The Advocate
Tree plantings - permanent is never really permanentIt appears New Zealand has a new Minister of Indigenous Forestry. Minister Nash has perplexed and astounded both farmers and foresters around the country by announcing new “tweaks” to the Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS) This has come off the back of anti-pine and farming groups attempting to stop whole farms being planted into pine trees, but unfortunately has the potential to only make it worse.
The Minister has announced a “proposal”, which is code for a “foregone conclusion”, to remove all exotic tree species from the “Permanent” category of the ETS. Now at first suggestion, this sounds sensible. Who wants pines that might be there forever? Certainly not the production forestry sector, that’s our job, to harvest and sell logs and timber products. We would all be out of business, and business is booming!
The thing is, with pine trees, permanent is never really permanent. There is always the option to harvest and the fact that there is harvesting occurring right now in our biggest New Zealand owned so-called “Carbon farms” means that these forests were in scant danger of succumbing to the “plant and walk away” slogan of anti-pine groups. Fibre in the future will be far too valuable for that. The only true “plant and walk away” is indigenous trees.
The trouble is with this proposal to omit all exotics, is that it also forgets that we MIGHT remove the opportunity to have a large crop of wood fibre that is viable for harvest and extremely valuable for new future markets, such as biofuels. If we don’t plant the crop to start with, we’ll never know, will we?
It is worst case scenario for the agricultural sector who are currently undergoing the contentious He Waka Eke Noa consultation about how to measure and manage their own farm emissions. How on earth are farmers expected to mitigate, off-set or manage on-farm water quality, erosion, methane, nitrous oxide, carbon dioxide with no exotic tree reserves to provide any income? Or off-set anything in their lifetime?
The problem with large scale indigenous forestry:
1. Indigenous cost AT LEAST ten times as much to plant. Up to $50,000 per ha. Who has that sort of money laying around?
2. There will be no carbon credits gained in the lifetime of the farmer. It could take 50 to 80 years for them to grow enough to measure any credits. If the plants survive at all, due to climate change predictions of increased droughts and floods.
3. Indigenous will never be harvested. No future fiber sources. For anything.
4. This will not help the bottom line for farmer’s profit. Which in turn is not helping them stay on the land.
5. Too late for our climate change goals. You can kiss them goodbye and wait for the new range of carbon taxes that the Government will implement once we have failed. Who pays? The taxpayer of course.
Can’t we have some of both? Why can’t the Government commit to planting all their own crown-owned forest estates in indigenous only forests. Why not make a percentage of all privately owned farms compulsory for indigenous permanent planting, but not all? Why not just set a cap on exotic permanent plantings?
I have a lovely garden, and its hard work to establish and bloody hard work to maintain. I would hate to think we are committing a generation of farmers to becoming native gardeners and making them pay for the sins of their ancestors who removed it in the first place.
Erica Kinder –CEO, Southern North Island Wood Council
A single source of information for private forestryForest & Wood Products Australia (FWPA) is developing a single, centralised database for private forestry information through a national project to collect and collate information about commercial farm plantations, private native forests and Indigenous managed forests around Australia.
FWPA’s Chris Lafferty said the project presents a significant and unique opportunity. “So much work has been undertaken, through funded programs or by individuals who have a passion for trees and timber. Too often the valuable lessons aren’t available to inform commercial forest management in agricultural settings. This project will develop a comprehensive database of historic and current trials which will inform landowners and investors about the potential for sensible and profitable expansion of forestry.”
The project is funded by the Commonwealth Government as part of the delivery of its National Forest Industries Plan: Growing a Better Australia – A Billion Trees for Jobs and Growth. It aims to encourage increased regional wood supply and while encouraging diversification of landholder income with practical and realistic guidance about the integration of commercial tree production into farming landscapes and the effective commercial management of privately owned natural forests.
FWPA has engaged leading forestry consulting firm, Greenwood Strategy to undertake the work. Pat Groenhout of Greenwood Strategy, said the project team was aiming to reach as broad an audience as possible. “If you’ve had an involvement in establishing commercial plantations in agricultural settings, or managing natural forests for timber production on private land, we’d like to hear from you.
Often people are sitting on information stashed away in a filing cabinet or on an old computer that could be really useful for others who are interested in private forestry. We’re really interested in old reports, measurements, sawmilling trials – anything to help build a more complete picture.”
The project will develop a single database for the private forestry information and will develop up-to-date extension material to guide land owners about the financial and timber production potential for commercial farm tree plantings, private native forestry and Indigenous managed forests.
To contribute information, or find out more about the project, you can contact Greenwood Strategy at email@example.com.
Source: Greenwood Strategy
Bush fire-fighting efforts – from 70 years agoA couple of weeks ago we built in links to three extensive reports covering three major bush fires in Australia. Collectively they burnt over 120 million ha compiled and written by John O’Donnell, a former forester with the then NSW Forestry Commission.
One of the three fires referred to occurred during the 1951-52 fire season, where extensive areas were burnt in both forest and pastoral areas extending from central Queensland through eastern New South Wales and the mountain forests of Victoria to the South Australian border.
This season was the most severe experienced in Queensland and New South Wales during the period of review (1945–1975). The total number of fires during this season in New South Wales was conservatively estimated by the Forestry Commission of New South Wales at around 5000 and the total area burnt at 4.5 million ha.
John has also compiled thirty images from those days from the Mitchell Library, State Library of New South Wales and Courtesy ACP Magazines Ltd. The author cannot ascertain the location/ s of the bushfires in these images, most likely in Victoria or NSW, possibly Queensland, or possibly a number of states. All bushfire images were from burning on 25 January 1952.
To check out these amazing images click here.
Source: John O’Donnell
Registration of Log Traders and Forestry AdvisersTe Uru Rākau – New Zealand Forest Service consulted on the proposed design of the initial registration system for log traders and forestry advisers in late 2021. It certainly caused some debate within the industry. The NZ Government has now made its decisions on the system and service requirements that will come into force on 06 August 2022.
Te Uru Rākau – New Zealand Forest Service is now looking for feedback on proposed funding options to support the establishment of the registration system and to cover the cost of the services it will provide.
The consultation document and supporting information on preparing and submitting a submission can be found here.
Public consultation closes at 5pm on 1 April 2022.
Source: Te Uru Rākau – New Zealand Forest Service
Response to native forest destruction articlesA story appearing in the Age and Sydney Morning Herald this week on the lack of profitability of NSW Forest Corporation native forest operations understandably raised the ire of the local industry. The headlines were,$20m loss: native forest logging last year cost NSW taxpayers $441 per hectare. The SMH article can be read here.
The following feedback has been sent by the South East Timber Association (SETMA) to a senior editor at the Age, with copies to the reporters, Lucy Cormack and Nick O'Malley.
I thought I would update you on another piece of reporting that seems to hint at the cosy relationship between certain Fairfax journalists, academics with a history of anti-native forest harvesting activism and in this case, the NSW Nature Conservation Council (NCC), representing the activists who monetise media generated outrage.
It just so happens that today, the NCC has launched a parliamentary petition advocating for the close down of the native forest harvesting industry in NSW. The NCC advise in the promotion for the petition: "This morning the Sydney Morning Herald reported the dreadful financial loss native logging makes each year. That’s dollars wasted. But the catastrophic loss of trees and wildlife is incalculable."
I am emailing you, because the same article has also been published in the Age. Your reporters claim "The net cost of destroying more than 13,500 hectares of red gum, ironbark and cypress trees - largely for woodchip exports and firewood - was $6 million, while one-off recovery costs following the Black Summer bushfires soared to $14 million."
Harvesting and regeneration of Australian native forests is not destruction. If your reporters travelled to where they are helping to transfer the impact of our hardwood consumption, including locations such as central Sumatra, they might understand a little more as to what constitutes destruction of forests.
The claim that red gum, ironbark and cypress trees go to wood chip exports is WRONG and shows how little your reporters let the facts get in the way of an activist campaign. Your reporters then go on to reference the November 2021 report released by law professor Andrew Macintosh. A critique of the fundamentally flawed report that your journalists seem to be promoting is also attached.
The following quote from professor Macintosh seems to be very new, so it is great that your reporters have ready access to the academic part of the anti-native forest campaign network. Their story says: "He said all state forestry corporations around the country were in the same position: “bleeding cash and with no foreseeable way to turn around”.
“If this was a true commercial operation it would be closed. It is only surviving because the state government is essentially choosing to underwrite it for an increasingly small number of jobs,” Professor Macintosh said."
Consequently, I would appreciate it if Lucy or Nick could remind professor Macintosh that I am still waiting for a response to my emails to him on the 2nd and 9th November 2021. He does not seem to have any time or the courtesy of responding to anyone who can highlight the shortcomings in his campaign material.
Thank you for your time and understanding as to why, when it comes to any matter relating to native forest management, SETA members do not rely on any Fairfax reporter to deliver a balanced story, with a fair hearing to all stakeholders.
A more detailed critique of the Age & SMH articles published earlier this week was also supplied by SETA yesterday. Please see attached.
Source: South East Timber Association
The Digital Forester: thoughts from a Canadian foresterAdam Dick is a Science Advisor at the Canadian Wood Fibre Centre, Canadian Forest Service and joins us from Fredericton. Adam was one of the champions that brought lidar enhanced forest inventory (EFI) to New Brunswick, which has resulted in the province having wall-to-wall lidar coverage and EFI predictions.
From academia, to industry, to provincial and federal government roles, Adam shares his thoughts on his current research focus on digital supply chains in forestry and the opportunities that lie ahead of us. Adam exemplifies how the profile of a forester has evolved to include more digital skills.
Source: Lim Geomatics Inc
Labor pledges AU$15 million for SA forestryKey points:
• Labor has promised a AU$15 million funding package to SA's forestry industry if it wins the upcoming state election
• The pledge includes building a research and development centre in Mount Gambier, upgrading fire towers and creating an industry master plan
• The industry has welcomed the package, but wants to be able to plant more trees.
The pledge includes AU$15 million over 10 years for a 'Centre for Excellence' for timber research and development in Mount Gambier, in the state's south east. There would also be AU$2 million over three years to develop a Manufacturing and Infrastructure Masterplan, AU$2 million to upgrade fire towers in the region's forests, and an additional AU$5 million for the Mount Gambier TAFE.
The package also includes expanding the role of the Forest Industries Advisory Council and undertaking a "comprehensive" and "independent" review of the region's Water Allocation Plan. Labor has promised to invest in courses where there are identified trade shortages, and develop the Trees on Farms initiative to promote the environmental and economic benefits of on-farm plantations.
The South Australian Forest Products Association has welcomed the funding pledge. "Forestry is receiving attention at a political level that it hasn't received for a very long time" said Chief executive Nathan Paine. But Mr Paine said what the industry really wanted was a commitment for more trees in the ground.
"Both parties have given us very strong commitment towards investigating and looking at what the options are of getting trees in the ground," he said. "We would have obviously loved to have that in our hands right now."
Greater Green Triangle CFMEU Manufacturing Secretary Brad Coates said more help for the timber industry though is needed to avoid declining forestry numbers. The Timber Workers Union has said water licensing and skills shortages will need to be resolved to see any real growth in the timber industry.
CFMEU Manufacturing secretary for the Greater Green Triangle District, Brad Coates said that any funding for forestry without water provisions is “just spin.”
Source: ABC, Border Watch
FTMA launches timber podcastsThe Frame & Truss Manufacturers Association of Australia (FTMA) are proud to launch their new Podcast series ‘F&T Time with Kersten Gentle’.
“We haven’t been able to sit and have a cuppa with members for 2 years due to the pandemic, so the aim of F&T Time is to keep the fabricators and the whole timber and construction supply chain connected and on top of the current issues”, said FTMA CEO Kersten Gentle.
“Members have never been busier and are struggling to keep up with the ever-changing rules around COVID-19, timber supply issues, floods and industry news in general. Everyone has half an hour in the car to listen to the podcasts or can even have them playing in the background whilst they are working and the feedback from industry shows there is a desire for these podcasts, with members urging us to keep them coming”, Mrs Gentle said.
There have been three releases of F&T Time with Kersten Gentle including:
• Riding the Wave with Tim Woods who discusses the journey of the timber and housing markets throughout the pandemic. Tim explains the importance of a healthy supply chain and talks about ways builders and fabricators can ride the wave and survive.
• Advocacy & Policies with Ross Hampton discussing the upcoming federal election and crucial state elections in 2022. Ross talks about the all-important policies for our industry and outlines how everyone within the industry can have a voice in the lead up to these elections.
• Special Edition: The Impact of ‘Conflict Timber’ where we discuss the impacts on timber imports as a result of the Russian invasion of Ukraine. With PEFC & FSC placing sanctions on Russian & Belarusian timber we are joined by a number of industry guests to help break down what it means for the Australian market including Simon Dorries (Responsible Wood), Leon Quinn (Tilling Timber) and Kurt Schrammel (VIDA Australia).
“People can listen to the podcasts on Apple Podcasts, Spotify, Google Podcasts and other popular podcast apps, otherwise people can simply visit our Podcast page at https://fttime.buzzsprout.com/, concluded Mrs Gentle.
SOS goes out to NZ truck driversIa Ara Aotearoa Transporting NZ has launched a recruitment campaign to attract more truck drivers to the industry as the country battles staff shortages. The SOS – save our supply chain – call aims to get the attention of people who can drive a truck, but for whatever reason they aren’t at the moment.
The road transport body has partnered with recruitment agency HainesAttract on the campaign. It has also been working with the Ministry of Social Development (MSD) industry partnerships team to recruit drivers and MSD is helping fund the work.
“The campaign taps into the current pain in the supply chain – empty fridges, empty supermarket shelves, empty mailboxes, and the last piece of toilet paper on the roll,” Transporting NZ chief executive Nick Leggett says.
“While there is a bit of humour, it is really no laughing matter for those trying to keep the supply chain operating under difficult circumstances. Hence the SOS. We know there are drivers out there with a Class 2, 4 or 5 licence, suitable for a heavy vehicle, who are currently not working as truck drivers and we need to encourage them to help save our supply chain and get back in the driver’s seat.
“As you will be seeing everywhere, staff shortages as a result of either Omicron illness or household contact isolation are hitting businesses throughout New Zealand. Now, more than ever, we need every available truck on the road delivering to supermarkets, pharmacists, hospitals, doctors, and everyone else who requires goods to get through this challenging time.
“Since January this year, we have been collecting details of drivers who might be able to cover a shift or two here and there, or who might want to get back into a truck on a more permanent basis. We had a shortage of truck drivers long before COVID hit. This campaign takes that out to a wider audience so we can ensure New Zealanders don’t actually have to face an empty fridge or fight over the toilet paper,” Leggett says.
Click here for more information and if you are a driver wanting to help save the supply chain.
Source: Transport Talk
US$750m plant for biomass manufacturingA sustainable materials company plans to spend at least US$750 million to build a biomass manufacturing facility in Louisiana that will turn wood residue into a chemical used in plastic. Origin Materials, headquartered in West Sacramento, California, said the project is expected to create 200 new jobs.
The plant will use sustainable wood residue to produce plant-based polyethylene terephthalate, or PET. The compound is primarily used in packaging, textiles and apparel. The plant is also expected to produce hydrothermal carbon, which can be used in fuel pellets. Gov. John Bel Edwards welcomed the company's plans for a new facility in the state.
Construction is expected to start in mid-2023, and the facility should be operational by mid-2025. “The demand for ‘net zero’-enabling materials is extremely strong, and we believe this plant will be instrumental in addressing demand for our products in the United States and internationally,” Origin Materials Co-Founder and Co-CEO John Bissell said in a statement.
Bushfire response bolstered with new labIn the face of more extreme events, Australia’s national science agency, CSIRO, has unveiled its new world-class bushfire research facility to better understand how bushfires behave, what conditions make them worse, and the best ways to respond.
Constructed at a cost of AU$2.1 million, the new National Bushfire Behaviour Research Laboratory is located at CSIRO Black Mountain Canberra. The new laboratory will boost the power of CSIRO’s Pyrotron and Vertical Wind Tunnel, two unique instruments designed to allow the detailed investigation of the physics of bushfires.
CSIRO Chief Executive Larry Marshall said as bushfires become more frequent and severe, the national science agency is investing in cutting-edge research to protect Australians and build on CSIRO’s more than seventy years of collaborative research in the field.
“Bushfires are one of Australia’s greatest challenges, and it will take the best science, facilities and partnerships across industry, government and research to help to protect our communities, front-line responders, and environment,” Dr Marshall said.
“During the Black Summer fires of 2019 and 2020, CSIRO’s scientists worked side by side with teams on the ground – as they have been for nearly every major fire event since 1950s – to better prepare for and manage bushfire seasons that are getting hotter, drier and longer.
“Challenges this complex cannot be solved by one organisation alone, and we look forward to bringing many partners together at this new National Lab – as we do at all our National Labs facilities across the country – to continue building the resilience and strength of our communities and economy.”
CSIRO bushfire behaviour expert Dr Andrew Sullivan said the Pyrotron and Vertical Wind Tunnel were purpose-built scientific apparatus that could replicate aspects of real-life bushfires under a controlled range of conditions without the risks, safety concerns and access issues that a live bushfire presented to firefighters.
“The new laboratory will help us better understand fundamental bushfire behaviour dynamics, and the factors and interactions that influence the behaviour of bushfires, to support their management by firefighters” Dr Sullivan said.
“The apparatus in the new laboratory can also help researchers and fire management agencies to better understand and manage fires under future climate conditions.”
More information on the Pyrotron and VWT can be found here
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... and one to end the week on ... early NZ bush camps
Last week we included a video from 70 years ago looking at life in the early Australian bush and sawmilling camps. This week we take a look at NZ’s early life in the bush. It’s from the same time, in the early 1950’s. With axes and power-driven saws bushmen bring the big trees crashing down, and the timber trucks take out the trimmed logs over steep and winding roads. In remote forest settlements life goes on much as it does in suburbs or country towns, and in the evening the feller of trees splits the kindling for the family fire.
And a few images sent in by readers during the week. Obviously rising fuel prices are on their mind right now.
And on that note, enjoy your weekend. Cheers.
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