Friday Offcuts – 22 March 2024

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Welcome to this week's edition of Friday Offcuts.

The theme for International Day of Forests 2024, " Forests and Innovation: New Solutions for a Better World," aptly reflects the transformative impact of technological advancements on forest management. The rapid development of drones, remote sensing, satellite technology, and even artificial intelligence is fostering more efficient forest management practices and enhancing fire detection capabilities.

In addition, the wood transport sector is experiencing a period of unprecedented technological innovation, while the construction industry witnesses the rise of mass timber skyscrapers reaching record heights. Significantly, the development of sustainable materials derived from trees presents exciting possibilities for eco-friendly alternatives in various sectors, including plastics, building components, fabrics, and even medicine. These advancements collectively hold immense promise for a future characterised by environmental sustainability.

This week we cover DAFF’s message for the International Day of Forests, Rotorua’s new Forest Futures Action Plan, Australian housing market and proposed role cuts in New Zealand's MPI. A new report on digital technology’s promise in NZ, along with initiatives like the multi-species carbon calculator for forest growers, a green electricity station in Australia and a film highlighting the importance of reducing fuel loads in California's forests to mitigate wildfire risks.

Finally, don’t forget that Easter public holidays are next week. Friday Offcuts will be released on Thursday morning (one day early), not Friday. If you are planning on posting new jobs or buy/sell classifieds, please note the deadline is Wednesday 27 March 2024 at 1pm NZ time. Also, the early bird is closing for Wood Transport & Logistics 2024 registrations on Friday next week - so best to sign up before it ends!

We cover these and more in another packed edition of Friday Offcuts. Enjoy the read.

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International Day of Forests celebrates innovations in forestry

Yesterday (21 March 2024) was the United Nations International Day of Forests, an important day to raise awareness of forest habitats and encourage local, national and international efforts to protect and restore forests. The theme for 2024 is Forests and Innovation: New Solutions for a Better World.

Head of Forestry in the Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry, Matt Lowe said innovation was vital to Australia’s forestry future. “Australia’s forests are recognised and valued for their diverse ecosystems, unique biodiversity, and the forest products that they produce” Mr Lowe said. “They provide a wide range of benefits, including environmental, economic, and cultural.

“It is important that we investigate and implement more innovative ways to grow Australia’s plantation estate and through that work enhance the future of Australia’s forestry industry. “Last week the Australian Government launched the $100 million Australian Forest and Wood Innovations (AFWI), in partnership with the University of Tasmania.

“AFWI will put Australia’s forest and wood products industries on the front foot, supporting applied research, development and innovation. “It will create opportunities for research and innovation to support the sectors’ future, building on the work delivered through the regional National Institute for Forest Products Innovation. “It is an exciting time for forestry research in Australia as we work towards unlocking the full potential of wood as the ultimate renewable material and growing our forests and forestry industry.”

The department will participate in the FAO Asia-Pacific Forests and Innovation Panel as part of the International Day of Forests. 

More >>

Source: Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry, Australian Government


Editor's Note: As we celebrate the International Day of Forests 2024, here is a short video showcasing the hidden secrets and innovations being unlocked within our forests.

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New ACC workplace injury prevention grants

ACC is investing NZ$22 million to help create safer workplaces in New Zealand. The workplace injury prevention grants aim to improve health and safety by developing, sharing, investing in, and implementing solutions to problems. The five-year programme began in 2019 and now the fifth round of grants will focus on the manufacturing sector. Manufacturing is one of New Zealand's biggest sectors, employing around 200,000 people, but it also experiences one of the highest rates of harm and injury. In 2022, injury claims in manufacturing resulted in 240,400 lost workdays.

ACC are looking for initiatives that can eliminate or significantly reduce hazards and lower injuries through Good Work Design approaches or the adoption of effective technology and/or engineered solutions.

Applications need to demonstrate how they aim to improve access, experience, and outcomes for Māori and uphold Te Tiriti o Waitangi principles. They should also demonstrate how they will aim to improve equitable outcomes for workers at higher risk for injury and increase worker participation and representation. Businesses don’t need to work in manufacturing, but the initiative needs to show direct benefits for the sector. Applicants can apply for between $50,000 and $500,000 (excluding GST) per year for a maximum of three years and applicants will need to co-fund at least 20%. Visit the ACC website for further details.

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Source: ACC

Komatsu Forest Advert

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The Rotorua Forest Futures Action Plan

The Rotorua Forest Futures Action Plan has been officially launched, a key document in bringing together much of the work that has been completed in the past, highlighting the importance of the forestry sector to Rotorua. This innovative and practical plan recognises Rotorua’s natural strengths in the sector and highlights key focus areas, emphasising the importance of community engagement, environmental stewardship, and economic development.

A unified vision for the future

Development of the Action Plan was a collaborative effort, led by an oversight group made up of seven Rotorua-based organisations: CNI Wood Council, Scion, Te Uru Rākau New Zealand Forest Service, Toi Ohomai | Te Pūkenga, Rotorua Lakes Council, RotoruaNZ, and Whenua Oho. The action plan contains 32 different actions with a series of different action owners.

Key highlights of the Action Plan
  • Moving to carbon zero: With a strong focus on sustainability, the Action Plan aims to contribute to climate change mitigation through increased tree planting and the adoption of carbon-zero practices. This aligns with broader environmental goals and the global effort to reduce carbon emissions. The Action Plan outlines a commitment to diverse planting, supporting a mix of species that contribute to ecological resilience and economic viability. This approach ensures forests are more adaptable to changing climates and market demands.
  • Māori and forests: Central to the plan is the incorporation of te ao Māori perspectives, ensuring that practices are aligned with Māori values and the principles of kaitiakitanga (guardianship). This includes initiatives designed by Māori for Māori, supporting their significant role in the forestry sector.
  • Research, science, innovation and commercialisation: The plan highlights the role of forestry in driving economic growth, with a focus on innovation, research, and the development of a circular bioeconomy. This includes investments in wood processing and technology that leverage Rotorua’s position as a hub for forestry excellence.
  • Engaged communities: Recognising the vital role of the community, the plan emphasises engagement and education to ensure that the benefits of forestry are widely understood and shared. This includes efforts to enhance recreational access to forests and educational programs to inspire the next generation of forestry professionals.
A call to action

The Rotorua Forest Futures Action Plan is not just a document but a call to action for all stakeholders to work together towards a shared vision. It represents a significant opportunity to shape the future of forestry in Rotorua, ensuring it is sustainable, inclusive, and economically vibrant.

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Source: RotoruaNZ

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Australian housing approvals – Still underperforming

Australia’s dwelling approvals data continues to underperform demand, with very little positive information. On an annualised basis, detached house approvals for the year-ending January 2024 were 100,737, down 11.6% on the previous year. Total dwellings for the year-ending January 2024 were 161,742 down -14.9% over the same period.

In analysing data, the preference is to provide context by looking at both the positives and the negatives. This month’s housing approvals is challenging as there is mainly negatives which leaves us still searching for the positives.

We’ll see how we go.

On a monthly basis, the data is more volatile than the annual data, with detached houses approved in January 2024 totalling 7,565 down 9.6% on December 2023. Total dwelling approvals were 12,850 down a more moderate 1.0%. To put that in context that is the worst monthly result since June 2012, when house approvals were as low as 7,411.

Examining the States, the year-end percentage change was lowest in South Australia at -9.8%, compared to a very steep change in the ACT where a decline of 25.3% for total dwelling approvals was experienced.

The states and territories are operating to sets of different parameters. Some have a little more demand because of migration flows or project work, some have insufficient land being released (hello NSW!) and others are battling for labour because of infrastructure projects (greetings Victoria).

However, all are struggling with one big constraint: confidence!

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Australian Dwelling Approvals

Source: FWPA

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Digital tech could boost NZ economy by NZ$26 billion

Spark and the New Zealand Institute of Economic Research (NZIER) recently launched a new study – Accelerating Aotearoa businesses one technology generation forward – to explore how Aotearoa’s well-documented productivity challenges can be addressed by the acceleration of advanced digital technologies.
The study combines insights from global research of small- advanced economies, economic modelling by NZIER, and Spark’s knowledge of current and future opportunities enabled by digital technology. The findings reveal clear and compelling benefits of modernising New Zealand’s economy – with a 20% uplift, the use of advanced digital technologies is predicted to increase industry output by up to NZ$26 billion over the next decade, and GDP by as much as 2.08% per year. 
“New Zealanders generate significantly less output than many other small advanced economies, despite working longer and harder comparatively as a nation,” says Spark CEO, Jolie Hodson. “Our productivity is a persistent challenge that has seen little change over many decades, but what is changing is the urgent need to address it. 
“Aotearoa is getting bigger, older, and more diverse. Inflation is forcing a greater focus on efficiency and cost control, and we are facing more frequent and extreme weather events. The good news is that the pace of technological advancement globally is accelerating at an even faster rate, and advanced digital technologies are now reaching a level of maturity where they have the potential to solve business challenges where it wasn’t possible in the past.
“This is a key focus for the initiatives we are launching today – how can technology help New Zealand organisations become more productive and sustainable, and in doing so, support Aotearoa to move forward one technology generation.” 
To help boost the adoption of advanced digital technologies and to support innovation among New Zealand’s largest organisations, Spark is committing NZ$15 million to an Innovation Fund for its business and government customers over the next three years. NZ$12 million is allocated to customers already, and an additional NZ$3 million will be available for customers to apply for.

More >>

Source and image credit: Spark

WoodTECH News 

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HVP appoints Melanie Cook as new CEO

HVP Plantations has appointed Melanie Cook as its new CEO, after an extensive search following the retirement of Stephen Ryan in October 2023. Cook commences the role on 8 April 2024, bringing with her a wealth of experience from a 25-year career with ExxonMobil.

HVP Board Chair Therese Ryan said Cook’s appointment was an exciting move, citing her experience and background complement the company’s direction. “We are thrilled to welcome Melanie, whose extensive experience, strategic vision and leadership ability makes her the ideal person to guide HVP Plantations through the evolving landscape of the timber industry,” Ms Ryan said.

Cook held many roles at ExxonMobil, highlighted by Chief Operating Officer in Malaysia and President and CEO in Indonesia, before returning to Australia in 2021 where she led her own consultancy business specialising in Leadership and Energy. Along with her esteemed career, Melanie holds a Bachelor of Engineering, Chemical Engineering, Chemistry and Mathematics from the University of Melbourne.

Interim CEO Josie Pane will work closely with Melanie to ensure a smooth transition, before resuming her role as CFO.

Source: HVP Plantations

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PIRSA - New toolkit to help 'Trees on Farms'

A series of information initiatives aimed at advising potential farmers and landowners interested in the on-farm forest plantation sector is now available as part of Trees on Farm initiative. This includes a toolkit, developed by the South Australian Government, in tandem with the Green Triangle Forest Industries Hub (GTFIH), featuring expert information and printable fact sheets to support and guide landholders in their commercial plantation investment.

In addition to the toolkit, other information for prospective growers is also available from five research reports and associated seminar videos conducted under the Trees on Farm initiative from both the PIRSA and GTFIH websites. The research projects, focussed on short rotation silviculture, include topics such as:
  • Development of rotation silviculture – which explored current and alternative Tasmanian bluegum (hardwood) and radiata pine (softwood) management (silviculture) regimes. By considering expected time frames for harvest, the farm property plan, and intended markets, there is potential to match a range of forest management regimes to an individual farmer’s property and production system.
  • Enhancing commercial viability via logistics and processes - includes a snapshot of Green Triangle softwood processors and hardwood woodchip exporters, tables of indicative softwood and hardwood harvest yields, indicative harvesting and haulage costs, approximate roading costs, and typical mill door prices.
  • Spatial analysis of suitable land areas for trees into farming - Four plantation management regimes are modelled using the Agricultural Production Systems Simulator (APSIM), and likely forest wood harvest volumes generated at thinning and final harvest across the project area are shown on the map.
  • Comparison of the Emissions Reduction Fund methods - primarily compared the ACCU Scheme plantation forestry method (Schedule 1), which focuses on new plantation forests for commercial harvest, with the farm forestry method, which incorporates both harvest plantation projects for saleable forest products and permanent planting projects. Among the conclusions, the analysis suggests the plantation forestry method is likely to be a better option if a plantation is established for harvesting wood products.
  • Development of taxation treatment in a farming framework - provides a distilled account of trees, taxation and superannuation and comprehensive appendices with information sourced from the Australian Taxation Office (ATO) and other sources. The analysis does not seek to provide specific treatment and outcomes but rather demonstrate what may be possible subject to a range of considerations.
The GTFIH website also includes an interactive web map  that allows users to explore the estimates of saleable wood and carbon credits, in agricultural areas within South Australia and western Victoria.

The two year, A$650,000 Trees on Farm initiative, jointly funded by the Australian and South Australian Governments, is aimed at boosting the growth and development of the on-farm forest plantation sector, particularly in the Green Triangle region.

For further information on the Trees on Farm initiative including the toolkit, research reports and videos and interactive map visit the PIRSA and GTFIH websites.

Source: PIRSA

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MPI cuts pose risk to primary sector

The NZ Government is putting our NZ$57.4 billion primary products export earnings at risk because of proposed cuts of 384 roles at the Ministry of Primary Industries (MPI), says PSA National Secretary Duane Leo.

To start meeting the Government’s cost saving demands of 7.5%, MPI is proposing that 384 roles are destabilised in consultation documents issued to staff today. About 40% of the roles targeted for cuts are currently vacant, which means 218 workers will be potentially affected by the proposed cuts.

The Public Service Association Te Pūkenga Here Tikanga Mahi understands that the proposal is only the first round of what are likely to be further cuts, as the current proposals will not create 7.5% in cost savings.

“MPI is the first line of defence for our whole economy. Taking 384 roles out of the system built up over many years to protect our NZ$57.4 billion in primary industry export is a reckless, irresponsible gamble by the Government to pay for tax breaks for landlords, Leo says.

“The roles that are being lost equate to about 9% of MPI’s workforce. That’s a big chunk to take out of the important biosecurity, farm animal disease control, food safety, fisheries, forestry and animal welfare work MPI is responsible for,” Leo says.

Our export economy relies on world class biosecurity and disease control, and a robust food safety regime that is beyond question. MPI has played an important role in critical issues facing the country from supporting rural communities in the aftermath of Cyclone Gabrielle to protecting our cattle industry by eradicating mycoplasma bovis, Leo says.

“Worryingly biosecurity is the biggest area to be cut, with 131 roles to go. Another 80 roles are going from the Agriculture Investment Services, which engages with primary industry stakeholders and farming communities on the ground,” Leo says.

“Farmers should be alarmed and deeply worried. The cost cutting will hit vital support for the primary sector and everyone else whose livelihoods depend on the it,” Leo says.

“As the recent shambolic changes to disability support services show, this is not a government with its eye on the detail of how its cuts will affect New Zealanders.”

“The cuts, and any that follow, will see not only MPI but the country lose irreplaceable primary sector knowledge and expertise,” Leo says.

The following areas are significantly impacted:

  • Biosecurity New Zealand: 131 net roles to go – 162 roles being cut, including 31 currently vacant, with 31 roles being created
  • Agriculture and Investment Services: 80 net roles to go – 115 roles being cut, including 32 currently vacant, with 35 roles being created
  • Policy and Trade: 52 net loses – 77 roles net roles to go, 29 currently vacant, with 22 roles being created
  • NZ Forest Service Te Uru Rakau: 27 net roles to go – 35 being cut, including 15 currently vacant, with eight roles being 8 created
  • Māori Partnerships and Investment: 14 roles to go – 24 being cut, including 10 currently vacant, with 10 created.
Source: PSA

Editor's Update: By the numbers: What we know about job cuts at MPI, MBIE and MoH

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New multi-species carbon calculator available

A new multi-species carbon calculator developed by Mark Kimberley and Michael Watt to support grower decision-making is freely available on the Forest Growers Research website ( Multi-Species Carbon Calculator (

The calculator predicts growth metrics for eleven species that include radiata pine, Douglas-fir and nine other widely planted exotic species. NZ forest growers can use the calculator to explore the impacts of site, rotation length and different silvicultural regimes on tree growth, timber yield, log grade out-turn and carbon sequestration.

The calculator and a help file can be downloaded at : Multi-Species Carbon Calculator ( and an article describing the calculator in more detail is available here.

The growth models within the calculator were developed using permanent sample plot (PSP) measurements. Predictions from the multi-species calculator of carbon, volume and wood density over 100 years for a typical North Island site are shown below for four species.


Source: Scion

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Next-gen heavy duty truck charging

Global efforts to decarbonise medium- and heavy-duty (MHD) freight vehicles are crucial for reducing transportation-related greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions with the medium- to heavy-duty electric truck market forecast to reach NZ$335 billion (US$207b) by 2044.

So says IDTechEx in its report Electric and Fuel Cell Trucks 2024-2044: Markets, Technologies, and Forecasts, by IDTechEx senior technology analyst Shazan Siddiqi. These vehicles, pivotal to economies worldwide, emit significant GHGs and criteria pollutants, often impacting vulnerable communities, he says.

“Fortunately, a growing array of technologies can eliminate tailpipe emissions and reduce the overall carbon footprint of MHD vehicles. “Currently, over 160 models of zero-emission trucks are available from more than 40 original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) – benchmarked on various performance metrics in IDTechEx’s latest report.

“Most commercial vehicle charging today is limited to between 150 and 350kW. “While charging at this level meets the needs of many fleets, as the use of commercial battery electric vehicles expands there will be use cases that will benefit from higher-powered charging, adding hundreds of miles of range to a heavy- duty truck during a rest break.”

IDTechEx research finds that the megawatt charging system (MCS) presents opportunities and challenges of moving to much faster charging speeds but predicts that it will become the exclusive commercial vehicle charging standard. “The MCS associated voltage cap is 1250V, so it is evident that higher charging powers are achieved by higher current and not voltage for commercial vehicles,” the report says. “MCS increases current by 600% and voltage by 20%, and this brings about new thermal management challenges.

“Active cooling of the cable and connector is required, and at power levels over 3MW, the vehicle inlet will also require cooling. Additional challenges also exist. Truck OEMs buying battery packs from third-party suppliers need to make sure voltage requirements meet the specs of MCS.

“Furthermore, supplying power to the site of groups of these chargers can be challenging, specifically with long lead times on interconnection agreements, transformers, and permits, as well as demand fees.”

IDTechEx says that while MCS will become the standard in Europe and the US, in China co-developers China Electricity Council, and Chademo’s “ultra ChaoJi” are developing a charging standard for heavy-duty electric vehicles for up to 1.8MW. It says battery swapping is increasing in the Chinese truck market. br>
Battery swapping has the shortest charging downtimes (three to six minutes) of all charging strategies, the report says. “For many Chinese trucks, the battery is behind the cab, in a swappable box that can be lifted and moved to the side.

“Almost all heavy swap-capable trucks in China use a CATL 282kWh LFP pack (weighing 3.2 tonnes), which has helped solve the issue of standardisation when trying to implement swapping. Swap-capable electric trucks are mainly used for short-haul applications (less than 100km) at ports, mining sites, and in urban logistics that require a quick turnaround time”.

“Battery swapping in China is a product of increased policies – targets laid out by the central government and subsidies provided for swap station construction (up to 15%) by the local government help alleviate the issues around high capital costs associated with large swapping stations.” IDTechEx research finds that battery- swapping trucks are now taking up about 50% of the electric truck market in China.

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Source: transporttalk

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Application for first Hunter Valley green electricity power station

Verdant Earth Technologies Limited has lodged a development application and is seeking approval to restart the Redbank Power Station using biomass (excluding native forestry residues from logging) as a sustainable fuel to produce near net zero CO2 emissions and green electricity.

Verdant will not use native forestry bio-material waste from logging activities or coal tailings as a fuel at Redbank. The majority of the biomass to be sourced during initial start up of the power station will be from approved land clearing operations (from existing civil and road works), biomass from invasive native species on agricultural land as approved by Local Land Services NSW and potentially a limited amount of purpose grown biomass. As the feedstock becomes available and approved, biomass will be sourced mainly from purpose grown biomass and end of life woody biomass (referred to as ‘Domestic Biomass Fuel’).

Upon restart, the facility will be one of the largest green baseload renewable energy providers in NSW and the only existing facility capable of providing continuous green 24/7 power with near net-zero CO2 emissions, adding to grid stability. The planning application has been submitted to the Department of Planning, Housing and Infrastructure for assessment.

Interested parties can support this initiative by submitting their comments via the website. The deadline for comment is 5pm Thursday 4th April 2024. A project summary is available via this link. A submission guide is also available.

Source: Verdant Earth Technologies

Editor's note: It is important to note that the characteristics of the biomass sector in Australia is different from our New Zealand, European and American readers. The popular FIEA Residues2Revenues conference is returning on 30-31 July 2024 in Rotorua, New Zealand and virtual online.

Residues2Revenues 2024

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New film highlights importance of reducing fuel loads

This story will resonate with foresters both in Australia and New Zealand who have been working hard with authorities and land managers to reduce fuel loads in forests to reduce fire risks.

A new film "California's Watershed Healing" documents the huge benefits that result from restoring forests to healthier densities. UC Merced's Sierra Nevada Research Institute partnered with the non-profit Chronicles Group to tell the story of these efforts, the science behind them, and pathways that dedicated individuals and groups are pioneering to scale up these urgent climate solutions.

"California's forests are at a tipping point, owing to both climate stress and past unsustainable management practices that suppressed wildfires and prioritised timber harvesting," explained UC Merced Professor Roger Bales, who was involved in developing the film.

Covering over 30 million acres - nearly a third of the state - these iconic ecosystems provide water, recreation, habitat, carbon storage and serve other needs. But they now contain too many trees, packed too closely together. "California's diverse ecosystems are facing unprecedented challenges as rising temperatures intensify the threat of wildfires and disrupt the delicate balance of our natural resources," said California Natural Resources Secretary Wade Crowfoot.

The over-accumulation of dead wood, leaves and other organic materials on the forest floor and buildup of small trees - which serve as "ladder fuels" moving fire from the forest floor up into the canopy - has been compounded in recent years by climate warming. Returning more low-severity fire to the landscape is one effective tool for combating heavy fuel loads.

"Restoring fire to these forests, which evolved to experience frequent fire, is critical, despite the risks associated with prescribed, intentional burning," said UC Merced Professor Crystal Kolden. "Partnerships help to give a voice to everyone involved, including historically excluded groups such as the tribes that have burned in these forests for millennia."

"The new production vividly documents the reality of the watersheds' demise and the hard work of new partnerships involving land managers, water agencies, the private sector, counties, universities, community groups and other public agencies to advance the pace and scale of forest restoration," said Jim Thebaut of the Chronicles Group, director and executive producer of the documentary.

"Restoration efforts focus on removing fuels, which lowers the projected severity when a fire does occur," Bales said. "Yet these thinning projects are very expensive. That is where partnerships that can develop creative financing and monetize the benefits of restoration come in."

"We need to use all of the collaborative forest-management, scientific and financial tools at our disposal if we are to address the wildfire challenge at a meaningful scale," said Phil Saksa, chief scientist at Blue Forest, a non-profit organisation focused on creating sustainable investment solutions to environmental challenges. "Leveraging the value provided by all the beneficial outcomes from this work is essential for motivating long-term investments in the natural infrastructure that is our forests and watersheds."

The film explores how scaling up promising investments can ensure a more sustainable future. "California's Watershed: Healing" was shown Sunday, Feb. 18 at the 22nd annual in Nevada City and Grass Valley, followed by a panel discussion with scientists, decision makers and filmmakers. The film trailer can be viewed here.

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Source: UC Merced

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SnapSTAT - Has Australian export logs slump passed?

In Australia, KPMG reported export sawlog sales by volume decreased by 130% while export pulp log tonnages decreased by 165% since the previous reporting period. (to June 2023)

Source: KPMG Australian Pine Log Price Index (Stumpage) - January to June 2023
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Buy and Sell

... and one to end the week on… the tomato garden

An elderly Italian man living alone in New Jersey wanted to plant his annual tomato garden, but it was very difficult work, since the ground was hard. His only son, Vincent, who used to help him, was in prison. The old man wrote a letter to his son and described his predicament:

Dear Vincent,
I am feeling pretty sad. It looks like I won’t be able to plant my tomato garden this year. I’m just getting too old to be digging up the garden. I know if you were here, my troubles would be over. I know you would be happy to dig the plot for me, like in the old days.
Love, Papa

A few days later he received a letter from his son.

Dear Pop,
Don’t dig up that garden. That’s where the bodies are buried.
Love, Vinnie

At 4 a.m. the next morning, FBI agents and local police arrived and dug up the entire area without finding any bodies. They apologised to the old man and left. That same day the old man received another letter from his son.

Dear Pop,
Go ahead and plant the tomatoes now. That’s the best I could do under the circumstances.
Love you, Vinnie

And on that note, enjoy your weekend. Cheers.

Ken Wilson
Editor, Friday Offcuts
Mob: +61 452 262 337 Web page:

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